Clinically Researched Health and Performance Aid - Helps Optimize Performance - Delays Muscle Fatigue - Improves Exercise Recovery - Promotes Fat Burning During Exercise - Supports Cardiovascular Health L-carnitine plays an essential role in fat burning metabolism, energy production and supporting the optimal functioning of the body at the cellular level. Extensive scientific evidence illustrates the benefits of L-carnitine for athletes and active people, including optimizing performance and delaying the onset of fatigue. Clinical research on L-carnitine supplementation also observed a decrease in the production of free radicals and a reduction in both normal tissue damage and muscle soreness after exercise, in addition to enhancement of the post-exercise recovery phase. Additionally, L-carnitine supplement use is reported to promote cardiovascular functioning and health, which is vital for achieving peak physical performance. L-carnitine supplementation is highly beneficial for athletes and acts as a catalyst to nutritionally support the phases of higher intensity exercise and training. L-Carnitine is a naturally occurring amino acid that plays a vital role in the metabolism of fat, energy production, reduction of muscle damage and soreness after exercise, delayed onset of muscle fatigue and even stabilization of blood sugar. It functions as a transporter of fatty acids into the mitochondria, the metabolic furnace of the cell. The research on the physiological benefits of L-carnitine is vast and very promising. (steve - note that L-Carn has good and bad results in research. Compelling is a difficult legal standard to achieve, and the FDA has already chimed in on L-Carn particularly to weight / fat burning.) L-carnitine was discovered in Russia, and one year later in Germany, according to Hilary Spruytenberg of Vanderbilt University. The proper name, Carnitine, refers to the Latin origin, (carno, caris). Its structural formula was decoded in 1927, and its physiological significance was understood by the 1960s. L-carnitine is synthesized in the liver and kidneys from two essential amino acids, lysine and methionine. This synthesis requires the presence of vitamins niacin, B6 and iron. Most (as much as 98%) of the carnitine supply resides in the body's muscle tissue. Approximately 80% of the amino acids our bodies need is endogenously synthesized (naturally produced by our bodies), while the remaining 20% are referred to as the essential amino acids. The supply of such aminos must be supplemented exogenously (from outside sources). This is done either through food sources such as red meat and dairy products or through the use of nutritional supplements like MHP's CARNITINE 500. Although a well-balanced diet typically provides approximately 75% of what the body is lacking, conditions can arise that make it difficult to obtain all the carnitine one needs. It has been established that an adequate supply of L-carnitine, while not “essential” as described above, is most certainly necessary for the maintenance of good health. L-carnitine transports long-chain fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane to be metabolized. It also aids in the release of stored body fat (tryglycerides) into the bloodstream for energy when the body necessitates it. Tryglycerides are the major source for the production of energy in the heart and skeletal muscles. Access to L-carnitine is believed to increase energy levels for long-term aerobic activity. L-carnitine is also responsible for muscle contraction, regulation of protein balance and maintenance of a healthy heart. Research also shows that L-carnitine can benefit other areas of health, such as kidney health, liver health, healthy blood sugar balance and preventing fatigue. Fat-Burning L-carnitine boosts energy by stimulating the body's burning of tryglycerides as fuel, and sparing the supply of glycogen stored in the liver for heavier exertion. During exercise, the body will burn fat at a rate of 75-80% of maximum exertion, thus less glycogen from carbohydrates is burned. L-carnitine allows the body to utilize more fat for energy, saving glycogen stores, leading to increased stamina and endurance. By providing more fat to the muscles for fuel, this amino acid makes accessible an otherwise unavailable energy source. Muscle Performance Supplementation with L-carnitine has been shown to improve levels of carnitine in muscle tissue and resulted in improved performance at both low and high intensity levels. Published research in the Journal of Physiology showing that subjects supplementing with L-carnitine who performed cycling tests over a 12 weeks period experienced increased work output by 11%. They also experienced a decrease in anaerobic energy production required to perform the task, meaning the supplementation helped their muscles work more efficiently. In addition, a decrease in muscle lactate was noted, in addition to lower perceived exertion. This research is important to understanding the potential benefits of L-Carnitine on muscle performance, and will lead to additional research to confirm its benefits. Reduced Muscle Soreness Heavy and intense training typically result in delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) due to the emphasis on eccentric muscular effort during these exercise bouts. L-carnitine supplementation has been shown to reduce the onset of DOMS due to its vasodilation properties, which help improve energetic metabolism of the hypoxic/damaged muscle and enhances washout of algogenic metabolites. A study published in the International Journal of Sports Medicine showed that L-carnitine supplements significantly reduced exercising subjects' minor pain, tenderness and DOMS. The supplementation was found to have an especially protective effect against muscle pain and damage from eccentric contractions. Recovery One area of study on L-carnitine is its effect on muscle recovery from intense exercise. Research from Ho, Kramer and Volek, et al., have found a link between the use of this amino acid and improved protein modeling and repair following exercise, as well as a reduction in normal chemical damage to muscle tissue. More recently, a study in Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental shows that L-carnitine use among middle aged men and women promotes a favorable effect on recovery biochemical makers. Using 4 sets of 15 reps in the squat or leg press at 50% of subjects' one-rep maximum for three weeks as the exercise protocol, the researchers found supplementation had a positive effect on free radical formation, muscle tissue disruption and muscle soreness after physical exertion. They stated that these positive effects support their earlier findings in younger subjects, meaning that older adults can benefit from L-carnitine use as well Blood Sugar Regulation In addition to its effect on the burning of triglycerides in the body and the improvement in metabolism, L-carnitine supplementation has been shown to improve the body's handling of glucose and to prevent spikes in blood sugar levels. Galloway and other researchers reported in Amino Acids that the use of three grams of carnitine enhanced blood glucose handling and disposal during gastric emptying. It was also noted that blood sugar levels of lean test subjects were lower than those of overweightsubjects due to the slower gastric emptying in this group. Androgen Receptor Concentration There is new research pointing to the effect of L-carnitine supplementation on the concentration of androgen receptors. in the journal Medicine & Science showed that 2 grams of L-carnitine taken daily for 21 days (in two 500 mg doses at breakfast and again at lunch) significantly increased resting androgen receptor concentration compared to placebo. It is theorized that L-carnitine reduced the amount of exercise-induced muscle tissue damage, resulting in a greater number of intact receptors available for hormonal interaction. Although confirming research is needed, this has potential for far reaching implications on muscle building pathways though the shuttling of androgens into muscle tissue.